Ο μεσαιωνικός ύμνος «Στάμπατ Μάτερ» είναι ένας από τους πολύ λίγους θρησκευτικούς ύμνους που έχουν επιζήσει και παραμένουν σε λειτουργική χρήση έως σήμερα. Πρόκειται για έναν ύμνο που έχει γίνει πηγή έμπνευσης για πολλούς συνθέτες σε διάφορες εποχές. Μια από τις πιο δημοφιλείς, για την απλότητα και αμεσότητα του συναισθήματος, μελοποιήσεις του ύμνου είναι αυτή του Τζιοβάννι Μπαττίστα Περγκολέζι. Ο συνθέτης από το Γέζι της Ιταλίας κατάφερε με το μέγεθος του ταλέντου του να γίνει ένας από τους σημαντικότερους του όψιμου μπαρόκ του ιταλικού νότου. Το έργο είναι γραμμένο για δύο φωνές με συνοδεία ορχήστρας εγχόρδων.
Δύο διακεκριμένοι σολίστες της νεότερης γενιάς, ο σπουδαιότερος ίσως κόντρα-τενόρος της εποχής μας, ο 38χρονος Γάλλος Philippe Jaroussky και η πολυβραβευμένη 31χρονη Ουγγαρέζα σοπράνο Emőke Baráth ερμηνεύουν το αριστούργημα του Τζιοβάννι Μπαττίστα Περγκολέζι "Stabat Mater". Την Ορχήστρα Δωματίου Orfeo 55 διευθύνει η ιδρύτρια της Ορχήστρας και κορυφαία κοντράλτο Nathalie Stutzmann. Η συναυλία δόθηκε στο Παρεκκλήσι της Αγίας Τριάδας (16ος αιώνας), στο Παλάτι του Φονταινεμπλώ στη Γαλλία, τον Απρίλιο του 2014.
Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736)
♪ Stabat Mater (1736)
i. Stabat mater dolorosa
ii. Cuius animam gementem
iii. O quam tristis et afflicta
iv. Quae moerebat et dolebat
v. Quis est homo, qui non fleret
vi. Vidit suum dulcem natum
vii.Eia, Mater, fons amoris
viii.Fac, ut ardeat cor meum
ix. Sancta Mater, istud agas
x. Fac, ut portem Christi mortem
xi. Inflammatus et accensus
xii. Quando corpus morietur – Amen
Philippe Jaroussky, countertenor
Emöke Barath, soprano
Conductor: Nathalie Stutzmann
Chapelle de la Trinité, Château de Fontainebleau, France, April 2014
Πρώτη δημοσίευση: 4 Ιανουαρίου 2015 – First publication: January 4, 2015
Τελευταία ενημέρωση: 8 Μαΐου 2016 – Last update: May 8, 2016
|Emöke Barath, Philippe Jaroussky|
Despite his tragically short life, Pergolesi left an impressive oeuvre, including the intermezzo La serva padrona, one of the great examples of the Italian comic opera in the eighteenth century. A successful opera composer, Pergolesi was also a highly esteemed composer of church music, exemplified by his remarkable Stabat Mater.
Following musical studies in his native town, Pergolesi was sent to Naples in the early 1720s. He continued his studies at the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesu Cristo, where he also performed as a violinist, also making his debut as a composer. In 1731, Pergolesi received his first commission to compose an opera, which means that he had probably left the conservatory around that time. By early 1732, Pergolesi had composed two operas, which met with minimal success. That year, he became maestro di cappella to Prince Ferdinando Colona Stigliano, a prominent Neapolitan nobleman. Pergolesi's opera Lo frate 'nnamorato was performed, greeted with immense enthusiasm.
In 1733, Pergolesi was commissioned to write an opera for the celebration of the birthday of the Empress of Austria. Performed in 1733, this opera, Il prigioner superbo, contained a two-act intermezzo, La serva padrona, which eventually gained extraordinary popularity as a separate work. When Carlos de Bourbon entered Naples in 1734, re-establishing, with the support of Spanish troops, the Kingdom of Naples, Pergolesi was asked to write a mass. He compose d his Mass in F, which was performed in Rome, eliciting considerable interest. Pergolesi was now maestro di cappella to another Neapolitan nobleman, the Duke Maddaloni.
The success of his Mass brought Pergolesi another commission: an opera, L'Olimpiade, for the 1735 Carnival season in Rome. The opera was a failure; fortunately, Pergolesi's last stage effort, Il flaminio, a comedy, was successfully produced in Naples. In 1736, Pergolesi, suffering from tuberculosis, moved to the Franciscan monastery in Pozzuoli. During his final year, he composed the Stabat Mater, which contemporaries lauded as a successful introduction of the new galant style into the traditional domain of church music.
Pergolesi's Stabat Mater was first published in London, in 1749, eventually becoming the most frequently printed musical composition in the eighteenth century. La serva padrona, based on a story about a witty servant girl who plots to marry her elderly master, enjoyed great success in Europe following Pergolesi's death. In 1752, a performance of this work in Paris sparked the famous Querelle des Bouffons (Quarrel of the Comedians), the dispute between the supporters of Italian opera and the patriotic traditionalists, who favored French opera. During this dispute, La serva padrona was upheld as representative of the Italian operatic genius. Eighteenth century critics, as well as ordinary listeners, admired the opera's brilliant characterization and masterful plot development. Admired in the eighteenth century, this concise stage work, which possesses a timeless charm, has been appreciated by generations of listeners.
Source: Zoran Minderovic (allmusic.com)
Stabat Mater is a musical setting of the Stabat Mater sequence, composed by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi in 1736. Composed in the final weeks of Pergolesi's life, it is scored for soprano and alto soloists, violin I and II, viola and basso continuo (cello and organ).
Many pieces which were said to have been composed by Pergolesi have been misattributed; the Stabat Mater is definitely by Pergolesi, as a manuscript in his handwriting has been preserved. The work was composed for a Neapolitan confraternity, the Confraternità dei Cavalieri di San Luigi di Palazzo, which had also commissioned a Stabat Mater from Alessandro Scarlatti. Pergolesi composed it during his final illness from tuberculosis in a Franciscan monastery in Pozzuoli, along with a Salve Regina setting.
The Stabat Mater is one of Pergolesi's most celebrated sacred works, achieving great popularity after the composer's death. Jean-Jacques Rousseau showed appreciation for the work, praising the opening movement as "the most perfect and touching duet to come from the pen of any composer". Many composers adapted the work, including Giovanni Paisiello, who extended the orchestral accompaniment, and Joseph Eybler, who added a choir to replace some of the duets. Bach's "Tilge, Höchster, meine Sünden" is a parody cantata based on Pergolesi's composition.
The work was not without its detractors. Padre Martini criticised its light, operatic style in 1774, and believed it was too similar to Pergolesi's comic opera La serva padrona to adequately deliver the pathos of the text.
The work is divided into twelve movements, each named after the incipit of the text. Much of the music is based on Pergolesi's earlier setting of the Dies Irae sequence.
Italian Baroque composer Giovanni Battista Pergolesi's "Stabat Mater", it is originally scored for soprano and alto soloists, here it is sung by the Hungarian soprano Emőke Baráth and the French countertenor Philippe Jaroussky. Orfeo 55 conducted by Nathalie Stutzmann. Recorded at the Château de Fontainebleau, France, April 2014.
Περισσότερες φωτογραφίες / More photos
Δείτε επίσης – Watch also
Farinelli (1994) – A film by Gérard Corbiau – Stefano Dionisi, Enrico Lo Verso, Elsa Zylberstein (HD 1080p)