(April 15, 1924 - October 2, 2016 • 15 Απριλίου 1924 - 2 Οκτωβρίου 2016)
At the end of March 1778, Mozart and his mother, Maria Anna, finally arrived in Paris after a prolonged stay in Mannheim (where Mozart had fallen in love with Aloysia Weber). On April 5 Maria Anna reported to Leopold (who had to remain in Salzburg) that Wolfgang had received a commission from the flute-playing Duke of Guines and his harpist daughter, who was taking music lessons from the composer. The commission, for a concerto for flute and harp, could hardly have inspired the young composer, who professed a dislike for both solo instruments and generally despised French musical taste, but he delivered the concerto dutifully. The combination of flute and harp, moreover, is a difficult one; "as a duo", notes writer Ethan Mordden, "they sound like a nymph going bonkers in a plashing spring". In spite of all this, however, the work is often played and is a perennial crowd-pleaser. Orchestras have few other opportunties to put their harpists on display in a concerto. Like almost everything else that happened on his trip with his mother to Paris, this Concerto caused Mozart trouble; the Duke failed to pay the composer for it.
In its small forces (the orchestra has only two oboes, two horns, and the standard string ensemble) it is suited for the salon. In line with the standard concerto form, the two soloists wait for the orchestra to present the opening material of the first movement, then take it up in unison. The movement as a whole is most charming in the dialogue-like writing for the flute and harp and in its overflowing lyricism. The second movement is accompanied only by the string section (the violas are divided into two parts for a richer sound). It is warm, uncomplicated, and somewhat florid. The finale is a lively rondo with a veritable parade of attractive tunes. The Concerto as a whole, notwithstanding its background, stands as one of the most pleasant mementos of Mozart's Paris sojourn, which would continue to reverberate stylistically through the rest of his output.
Source: Joseph Stevenson (allmusic.com)
Το Κοντσέρτο για φλάουτο και άρπα σε Ντο μείζονα, Κ.299/297c, του Βόλφγκανγκ Αμαντέους Μότσαρτ, ερμηνεύουν ο Γάλλος φλαουτίστας και διευθυντής ορχήστρας Πατρίκ Γκαλουά και ο επίσης Γάλλος αρπιστής και διευθυντής ορχήστρας Φαμπρίς Πιέρ. Την Orchestre de la Suisse italienne διευθύνει ο αείμνηστος Βρετανός μαέστρος σερ Νέβιλ Μάρινερ. Η συναυλία δόθηκε στο Συνεδριακό Κέντρο του Λουγκάνο στην Ελβετία το 2006.
Το Κοντσέρτο για φλάουτο και άρπα σε Ντο μείζονα, Κ.299/297c, είναι το μοναδικό έργο του Μότσαρτ στο οποίο συναντά κανείς άρπα. Γράφτηκε τον Απρίλιο του 1778 στο Παρίσι, μετά από παραγγελία ενός φλαουτίστα δούκα που φιλοδοξούσε να παίξει μαζί με την αρπίστρια κόρη του. Ο συνδυασμός των δύο οργάνων ήταν αρκετά παράδοξος κι ασυνήθιστος για την εποχή, εφόσον η άρπα δεν είχε εξελιχθεί πλήρως ώστε να αποτελεί σταθερό μέλος της συμφωνικής ορχήστρας.
[The video was removed for "copyright reasons" – Το βίντεο αφαιρέθηκε για λόγους «πνευματικών δικαιωμάτων»]
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
♪ Concerto for flute, harp and orchestra in C major, K.299/297c (1778)
iii. Rondeau. Allegro
Patrick Gallois, flute
Fabrice Pierre, harp
Orchestre de la Suisse italienne
Conductor: Sir Neville Marriner
Director: Mando Bernardinello
Switzerland, Lugano, Convention Center Lugano, 2006
|Photo by Richard Holt|
Recordings were vital to the success of the Academy of St Martin's, which initially played only baroque music. When Marriner was invited by four colleagues to form the crack string band in 1958, he led it from the first desk as Adolf Busch had done in the 1930s and 40s with his Chamber Players, and Felix Ayo was doing with I Musici. The original 12 musicians wanted the chance to make music democratically, as they suffered enough in their “day jobs” from the tyrannies of conductors.
The group, which drew on Marriner’s experience of playing in such chamber orchestras as the Jacques (founded by Reginald Jacques) and the Boyd Neel, met initially in his flat. But their keyboard player, John Churchill, who was director of music at the classical 18th-century church in Trafalgar Square, suggested they should give five concerts at St Martin's in the 1958-1959 season. The viola player Michael Bowie came up with the title Academy. The initial series went well, the BBC took note and a more ambitious series began on 13 November 1959, now considered the Academy's real starting point.
Louise Dyer, an Australian sheep farmer and entrepreneur who ran the characterful record label L'Oiseau Lyre, was impressed by the first concert and offered a contract for six records. On 25 and 26 March 1961 the Academy assembled in Conway Hall to record works by Corelli, Torelli, Locatelli, Albicastro and Handel. Marriner had to buy gut E-strings because the violins sounded too shrill in the hall's acoustic. Each player received £5, with no promise of royalties. Issued in 1962, the LP was well received, and that July a second programme was set down in Walthamstow Assembly Hall, east London. When Dyer died in 1962, Harley Usill's enterprising Argo label took over the Academy.
The group's LPs did so well that Marriner, with encouragement and coaching from the LSO's conductor Pierre Monteux, began to exchange his bow for the baton. The Academy soon expanded to a full chamber orchestra and, with major studio contracts from Decca and later EMI, Philips and Sony, eventually became the most recorded orchestra of all, covering a vast repertoire from the Baroque to the moderns.
By 1969 Marriner could give up playing in other orchestras and work full time with the Academy. The ultimate professional, he was able to attract the best players because they were aware that he knew what he was doing. Academy recordings were musicologically sound and technically polished. Thurston Dart played the harpsichord on some of them, even during his final illness, and soloists such as Alan Loveday and Iona Brown – who in 1978 became Marriner's successor in directing from the violin – lent further lustre to the lineup.
The Academy also toured worldwide and appeared at the large festivals, making a big impact at Salzburg under Marriner in 1982. In 1990 alone, the orchestra gave 114 concerts outside the UK with Marriner, and in 1993 it won a Queen's award for export achievement. Meanwhile, in 1969 Marriner had taken over the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, which took him to California twice a year until 1987.
Born in Lincoln to Herbert, a carpenter, and Ethel (nee Roberts), Marriner was taught the violin and piano by his father before opting for the violin and studying with Frederick Mountney. He was educated at Lincoln school and entered the Royal College of Music in London on a scholarship in 1939. His studies with Edward Elgar's friend Billy Reed were disrupted by second world war service in Army reconnaissance (1941-1943), but on being invalided out, after five months in hospital, he went back to the RCM. He then spent a year at the Paris Conservatoire, studying with the virtuoso violinist René Benedetti. After a year teaching music at Eton, he joined the Martin Quartet in 1949 as second fiddle to the Canadian violinist David Martin.
An even more powerful influence was Dart, in whose Jacobean Ensemble he played from 1951; with Dart and such enterprises as the American Vanguard record label, he was in at the beginning of the modern "early music" movement. He also founded the Virtuoso String Trio. But he earned much of his living playing in London orchestras: he was in the Philharmonia when Arturo Toscanini came to conduct in 1952 and he joined the LSO in 1954 as principal second violin, a post he held until 1969. In 1971 he made his debut with the New York Chamber Orchestra. He worked with the Gulbenkian Orchestra in Lisbon and the Israel Chamber Orchestra in Tel Aviv, and in 1973 conducted the inaugural concerts of the Australian Chamber Orchestra in Sydney.
In 1977 he made his New York Philharmonic debut with a Mozart programme; and he conducted the Detroit Symphony Orchestra a good deal. He also worked in Britain with the Northern Sinfonia from 1971, and from 1979 to 1987 was in charge of the Minnesota Orchestra. At the same time he conducted regularly in Germany, notably with the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra (1986-89).
From the late 70s he occasionally tackled opera, in both theatre and studio, and he mastered the central choral repertory: from 1975 the Academy had an associated chorus, founded by Laszlo Heltay. More recently Marriner freelanced, but in all the phases of his career he kept in touch with the Academy, only handing the music director's baton to fellow violinist Joshua Bell in 2011, when he became the Academy's life president. In 2014 Decca issued a 28-disc box of all his recordings from 1961 to 1982 for L'Oiseau-Lyre, Argo and ASV.
Marriner was not a "deep" conductor, but he was a very good one. His style mirrored his outward appearance, which was neat and dapper, and his manner, which was self-deprecating in an English way. If he lacked the ability of the greatest orchestral directors to see and convey a work as one massive entity, he was able to give each movement of a symphony or concerto a convincing shape.
His Bach, Vivaldi, Handel, Haydn and Mozart were buoyant and graceful; he brought expertise and intuitive understanding to 20th-century British string music; and some of his recordings of large works, such as Haydn's Creation or Mozart's Così Fan Tutte, have a sheen and glow that will keep them selling for years to come. It would be hard to beat his accompaniment to Viktoria Mullova in the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto.
For most of the 50s he taught the violin at the RCM, and he later helped many fledgling conductors. He was appointed CBE in 1979, knighted in 1985 and made Companion of Honour in 2015.
His first marriage to the cellist Diana Carbutt, by whom he had two children, Andrew, a clarinettist, who often worked with his father, and Susie, a writer, ended in divorce. In 1957 he married Elizabeth Mary Sims, known as Molly, whose hard work in the struggling early years of the Academy played a major role in its success.
Marriner is survived by Molly, Andrew, Susie, three grandsons, Douglas, Matthew and Milo, and a great-grandson, Frederick.
Source: Tully Potter (theguardian.com, 2/10/2016)
Patrick Gallois is a French flutist and conductor. Gallois was born in 1956 in Linselles near the town of Lille in the north of France. At the age of 17 he began studies at the Conservatoire de Paris with the celebrated flutist Jean-Pierre Rampal and after two years received the First Prize. At the age of 21 he became principal flutist of the Orchestre National de France under Lorin Maazel. He served in that capacity from 1977 to 1984. In 1984 he left this post for a career as a flute soloist and, later, conductor.
Gallois has played under many famous conductors, including Leonard Bernstein, Seiji Ozawa, Pierre Boulez, Karl Böhm, Eugen Jochum, and Sergiu Celibidache. He also regularly performs and records with leading conductors and collaborates chamber music with Yuri Bashmet, Natalia Gutman, Peter Schreier, Jörg Demus, and the Lindsay String Quartet Formerly, he performed with Jean-Pierre Rampal and the harpist Lily Laskine.
Gallois has had an exclusive recording contract with Deutsche Grammophon and, more recently, has recorded with Naxos. His discography currently includes some 75 recordings.
From 2003 till 2012 Gallois was the music director of Jyväskylä Sinfonia in Jyväskylä, Finland. He toured with the orchestra in Europe and Japan.
The harpist and conductor Fabrice Pierre was a pupil of Pierre Jamet for the harp and Paul Ethuin and Franco Ferrara for orchestral conducting. In 1980 Pierre Boulez offered him the position of assistant conductor at the Ensemble Intercontemporain, and in 1984 he was unanimously awarded the first prize at the Marie-Antoinette Cazala International Harp Competition at Gargilesse (France). During the same year, he was appointed harp professor at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique de Lyon, where he has also, since 1997, been musical director of l'Atelier du XXème Siècle. Fabrice Pierre pursues an international career as harpist and conductor, giving concerts and masterclasses at major festivals, including those of Kuhmo, Gubbio, Prades, Kitakyushu, Musicades of Lyon, Music Today in Tokyo, and promoting new works by contemporary composers. As a chamber musician he plays regularly with his friends Patrick Gallois, Pierre-Henri Xuereb, Annick Roussin and Shauna Rolston and he has recorded works by Caplet, Debussy, Doppler, Fauré, Louvier, Mozart, Ravel and Takemitsu for 3D, Calliope, DGG, EMI, Forlane and Naxos.
See also / Δείτε επίσης
Neville Marriner (1924-2016) – In Memoriam