130ή επέτειος από το θάνατό του / 130th anniversary of his death
Το Κοντσέρτο για πιάνο αρ. 2 σε Λα μείζονα, S.125, του Φραντς Λιστ, ερμηνεύει ο μεγάλος, πολυβραβευμένος και περιζήτητος Ρώσος πιανίστας Νικολάι Ντεμιντένκο. Τη Συμφωνική Ορχήστρα της Γαλικίας διευθύνει ο διακεκριμένος Ολλανδός αρχιμουσικός Otto Tausk. Η συναυλία δόθηκε στο Palacio de la Ópera, στην πόλη Α Κορούνια της Ισπανίας, στις 15 Απριλίου 2016.
Ο Φραντς Λιστ άρχισε να γράφει το Δεύτερο Κοντσέρτο για πιάνο κατά την περίοδο 1839-1840. Στη συνέχεια εγκατέλειψε το χειρόγραφο για μια δεκαετία. Όταν επέστρεψε σε αυτό, το αναθεώρησε κατ' επανάληψη. Η τέταρτη και τελευταία αναθεώρηση του έργου ολοκληρώθηκε το 1861. Ο Λιστ αφιέρωσε το Κοντσέρτο στον μαθητή του, Hans von Bronsart (1830-1913), ο οποίος το ερμήνευσε πρώτος, υπό τη διεύθυνση του συνθέτη, στη Βαϊμάρη στις 7 Ιανουαρίου 1857.
Τα δύο κοντσέρτα για πιάνο του Φραντς Λιστ αποτελούν δημοφιλέστατα σημεία αναφοράς στη ρομαντική εργογραφία. Ο Λιστ ήταν ενήμερος για τις υφολογικές εξελίξεις πάνω στο είδος του κοντσέρτου καθώς γνώριζε προσωπικά τους περισσότερους από τους συνθέτες της εποχής, ενώ είχε ερμηνεύσει πάρα πολλά από τα έργα για πιάνο που είχαν γραφεί από σύγχρονούς του δημιουργούς. Κατά την περίοδο 1839-1846 πραγματοποίησε πάνω από χίλιες εμφανίσεις. Υπήρξε ο θεμελιωτής του ρεσιτάλ, ο πρώτος που ενσωμάτωσε έργα διαφορετικής αισθητικής σε ένα ενιαίο πρόγραμμα και αυτό επηρέασε και τις αισθητικές καταβολές του ως συνθέτη.
Το Κοντσέρτο για πιάνο αρ. 2 σε Λα μείζονα, S.125, ακολουθεί τη μορφολογική διάρθρωση του Κοντσέρτου για πιάνο αρ. 1. Είναι γραμμένο ως ένα ενιαίο μέρος, το οποίο υποδιαιρείται σε πέντε υποενότητες. Εκτείνεται σε 600 μουσικά μέτρα και διέπεται από συνεχείς εναλλαγές σε τονικότητες, θεματολογικό υλικό, υφολογικά και μορφολογικά στοιχεία. Το βασικό ρυθμομελωδικό κύτταρο πάνω στο οποίο δομούνται όλα τα προαναφερόμενα συστατικά είναι το βασικό θέμα (τα τέσσερα πρώτα μέτρα του έργου), το οποίο στη συνέχεια παραλλάσσεται διαρκώς, ανάλογα με τις εκάστοτε ιδιαιτερότητες. Εκτός από το βασικό θέμα, κατά τη διάρκεια του Κοντσέρτου παρουσιάζονται άλλα τέσσερα θέματα. Συνολικά τα πέντε θέματα του έργου παρουσιάζονται ως εξής: Το πρώτο και το δεύτερο παρουσιάζονται στην πρώτη υποενότητα, το τρίτο και το τέταρτο στη δεύτερη υποενότητα και το πέμπτο στην τρίτη υποενότητα.
Πηγή: Σπύρος Δεληγιαννόπουλος (Συνθέτης, μουσικολόγος, πιανίστας)
Liszt composed the Piano Concerto No.2 in A major in 1839 and revised it often, beginning in 1849. It was first performed on January 7, 1857, in Weimar, by Hans von Bronsart, with the composer conducting. The first American performance was given in Boston on October 5, 1870, by Anna Mehlig, with Theodore Thomas. The orchestra consists of three flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, cymbals, and strings. Performance time is approximately twenty-two minutes.
Liszt is music's misunderstood genius. The greatest pianist of his time, he often has been caricatured as a mad, intemperate virtuoso and as a shameless and tawdry showman. (Early in his career, he tried, with uncanny success, to emulate both the theatrical extravagance and technical brilliance of the superstar violinist Paganini.) But when Robert Schumann heard Liszt play, he was struck most of all by the young musician's "tenderness and boldness of emotion". Clara Schumann, an important pianist herself, told her husband, "When I heard Liszt for the first time in Vienna, I just couldn't control myself, I sobbed freely with emotion". Although his popularity as a pianist was nearly unrivaled in the nineteenth century, his ultimate importance to music history is as a serious, boldly original, and even revolutionary composer.
By the time he gave up his public career in 1847, a month before his thirty-sixth birthday, to devote time to composition and conducting, Liszt had not only written dozens of solo display pieces to take on the road, but he also had begun experimenting with large-scale works for piano and orchestra. His father Adam remembered two piano concertos from the 1820s; they haven't survived. There's a Grande fantaisie symphonique on themes by Berlioz and a fantasia on Beethoven's Ruins of Athens, both dating from the 1830s. During that decade, Liszt also sketched the two familiar piano concertos and drafted a third he ultimately set aside. (The autograph was discovered in 1988; Janina Fialkowska gave the world premiere, with Kenneth Jean conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, on May 3, 1990.)
Liszt never met Franz Schubert, the composer whose influence on his concept of instrumental form was the most profound, even though they lived near each other in Vienna for more than a year. Liszt admired Schubert's music throughout his life, and he made piano transcriptions of many of the great songs so that he could play them in recital. Of all Schubert's compositions, it was the Wanderer Fantasy, a large and demanding work for piano solo, that he loved most, and it was practically the only one of Schubert's piano pieces that he played publicly. (In the early 1850s, after he had retired from the concert stage, Liszt arranged Schubert's Wanderer Fantasy for piano and orchestra and also for two pianos.) Liszt was attracted not only by the fantasy's wild virtuosity (so unexpected from Schubert, normally the most selfeffacing of composers), but also by its extraordinary form – four movements linked in a continuous structure and further unified by a single theme.
Liszt was decades ahead of his time in his appreciation of Schubert, and the music he ultimately wrote in the spirit of the Wanderer Fantasy – bold experiments with questions of organization and formal structure – are the works of a pioneer, not a mimic. Liszt's masterpiece in this quest is his own single greatest work for piano solo, the Sonata in B minor. Both piano concertos are indebted to Schubert's idea of individual movements bound together as one, though it’s the first that more closely follows the path of the Wanderer Fantasy. Both benefit from Liszt's evolving concept of an entire full-length piece that works like a single movement in sonata form, with material introduced, developed, and later recapitulated. And both demonstrate Liszt's extraordinary skill at thematic camouflage and transformation – the ability to manufacture themes of remarkably diverse character from the same melody. Liszt originally called his Second Piano Concerto a Concerto symphonique, after the works of the same name by Henry Litolff, a pianist and composer who normally followed Liszt's lead in artistic matters, just as his name now follows Liszt's in music dictionaries. Liszt was interested in Litolff's concertos because they explored unconventional designs for large pieces combining piano and orchestra. But Liszt ultimately dispensed with the borrowed title, recognizing that, whatever its hybrid qualities, his score was more concerto than symphony. (He and Litolff were long-time friends, and Liszt dedicated his First Piano Concerto to him; today we frequently encounter Litolff's name only through the publishing house he acquired with his second marriage.)
The second concerto continues to explore the ideas of joining sections and thematic variation found in the first, although it’s more subtle in its melodic sleight of hand and freer and more mysterious in its progression of linked movements. It's also less overtly virtuosic, as if Liszt had taken to heart Litolff's idea of solo and orchestra as two closely integrated entities. Where Liszt introduced the soloist in a dazzling display of octaves and filigree in the first concerto, here the piano slips in with gentle arpeggios beneath the quiet wind music that opens the work. (It's remarkable how often in this concerto the piano appears to accompany the orchestra.) Soon the piano asserts itself, and eventually there is even a cadenza, though it's short and to the point, which is to introduce a new section. Throughout this concerto, the pianist often helps Liszt move from section to section – from the gentle nocturne to a dazzling scherzo and the martial finale – without breaking the continuity.
The success of Liszt's continuous form depends on his command of thematic metamorphosis. It's a technique learned not only from Schubert, but also from the finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, where the "Ode to Joy" becomes a Turkish march, with cymbals and drums, and from Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique, with its superb and classic idée fixe eventually converted into one of the most grotesque melodies in music. Better than either of these composers, Liszt understood the full potential of the concept – disguise so complete as to be unrecognizable – and the A major concerto is one of his most masterful demonstrations. The lyrical opening melody, to take the most obvious example, arrives at the finale dressed for a great march – a makeover that's hardly undetectable, but complete nonetheless, with its pace, character, time signature, key, and dynamics all dramatically altered. Although this brilliant and noisy march often has been criticized as a vulgar betrayal of Liszt's original theme, it succeeds admirably, both as a rousing finale and as a demonstration of the art of camouflage.
Source: Phillip Huscher, program annotator for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (cso.org)
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
♪ Piano Concerto No.2 in A major, S.125 (1839, 1848-1861)
Adagio sostenuto assai – Allegro agitato assai – Allegro moderato – Allegro deciso – Marziale un poco meno allegro – Allegro animato
Nikolai Demidenko, piano
Orquesta Sinfónica de Galicia
Conductor: Otto Tausk
Palacio de la Ópera, A Coruña, April 15, 2016
|Photo by Damil Kalogjera|
The Russian-born British pianist Nikolai Demidenko (b. 1955) is a celebrated piano virtuoso, considered a leading exponent of the Russian school of playing. His blend of technical brilliance and musical vision have earned him consistent raves since he first emerged on the international scene in the mid-1980s, and he has become a musical fixture in his adopted home of Great Britain, where he gained citizenship in 1995.
Demidenko began playing before the age of five, learning on his grandfather's old, beaten-up piano. By the age of six, he was a student of Anna Kantor (Evgeny Kissin's teacher) at the Gnessin School of Music. An obstinate student who disliked scales and technique, Demidenko still made swift progress, and he eventually entered the Moscow Conservatory. There, he studied with Dmitri Bashkirov, whom Demidenko credits with fostering his more individual qualities as a player, as well as ironing out the remaining wrinkles in his technique. Reaching the finals of both the 1976 Montreal competition and the 1978 Tchaikovsky competition in Moscow (where he played through an acute case of the flu) served as a final springboard to professional recognition.
A 1985 tour with the Moscow Radio Symphony Orchestra introduced Demidenko to the West, and in particular Great Britain, where he would become a resident in 1990. While teaching piano at the University of Surrey, Demidenko has steadily built an international career of the highest caliber, playing concertos with many of Europe's greatest orchestras and conductors, and playing a landmark series of recitals in London's Wigmore Hall. His recordings of Medtner, Mussorgsky, and Busoni have been particularly well-received, and he has established himself as a leading interpreter of Liszt and Chopin. Demidenko has also ventured into earlier composers, such as Bach, Mozart, and Scarlatti, playing with a degree of rhythmic freedom (rubato) that cuts against the grain of studied performance practice; Demidenko feels that it is an essential ingredient of their music.
Source: Allen Schrott (allmusic.com)
More photos / Περισσότερες φωτογραφίες
See also / Δείτε επίσης
Franz Liszt: Piano Concerto No.1 in E flat major – Lang Lang, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Edward Gardner
Aldo Ciccolini plays Liszt & Wagner (Audio video)
Franz Liszt: Songs – Markella Hatziano, Steven Larson (Audio video)
Franz Liszt: Piano Sonata in B minor – Van Cliburn