Jakub Józef Orliński

Jakub Józef Orliński
Jakub Józef Orliński, countertenor. Photo by M. Sharkey

Friday, January 06, 2017

Gustav Mahler: Symphony No.5 in C sharp minor – Gyeonggi Philharmonic Orchestra, Shiyeon Sung (HD 1080p)

Shiyeon Sung conducts Gyeonggi Philharmonic Orchestra in Gustav Mahler's Symphony No.5 in C sharp minor. Recorded at Seoul Arts Center, on June 9, 2016.

Mahler kept revising the orchestration of this work until his death. He conducted the first performance with the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne on October 18, 1904. It is scored for quadruple winds, six horns, four trumpets, three trombones, tuba, tympani, three other drums, metal and wood percussion, harp, and string choir.

He'd begun the Fifth Symphony at Maiernegg in 1901 – writing the third, first and second movements in that order, after a death-obsessed song, "Der Tamboursg'sell", and the Kindertotenlieder cycle ("Songs on the Death of Children"). After nearly bleeding to death the previous winter (from an intestinal hemorrhage), Mahler's symphonic orientation underwent a profound change. During his recovery he immersed himself in the complete works of Bach.

A new appreciation of counterpoint was born, but not yet a mastery of orchestral balances or effects – as subsequent events were to prove. Beginning with No.5, he applied this new passion (which he called "intensive counterpoint") to five purely instrumental symphonies without Wunderhorn associations. Like the Resurrection Second and the first version of No.1 (with the Blumine slow movement later abandoned) Mahler cast his Fifth Symphony in five movements that fall naturally into three parts.

The first begins in C sharp minor with a funeral march, of measured tread and austere (Movement I). A sonata-form movement follows, marked "Stormily, with greatest vehemence" (Movement II), which shares themes as well as mood with the opening.

The second part (which Mahler composed first) is a scherzo: "Vigorously, not too fast" (Movement III) – the symphony's shortest large section, but its longest single movement. This emphatically joyous, albeit manic movement puts forward D major as the work's focal key. Although its form has remained a topic of debate since 1904, rondo and sonata-form elements are both present.

The third part begins with a seraphic Adagietto: "Very slowly" (Movement IV). This is indubitably related to the Rückert song Mahler composed in August 1901, "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen" (I have become lost to the world... I live alone in my heaven, in my loving, in my song). A Rondo-Finale: "Allegro giocoso, lively" (Movement V) concludes the symphony, although Mahler devised a form far removed from classic models. While sectional, in truth episodic, this too has elements of sonata form. To weld its diverse components into a unity he wrote four "fugal episodes", with a D major chorale just before the final Allegro molto.

Mahler's search for a new vocabulary caused him no end of orchestration problems. Before his death in 1911 he had made several versions, the original of which was published in 1904. C. F. Peters failed, however, to emend either mistakes or revisions in the first pocket score, although they re-engraved orchestral parts (at Mahler's expense) to include his first set of corrections. Not even Erwin Ratz's "first critical edition" of 1964 was the last word. Revisions Mahler made just before his terminal illness didn't come to light until the "second critical edition", by Karl Heinz Füssl, published just around 1989.

Source: Roger Dettmer (allmusic.com)

Υπό τη διεύθυνση της βραβευμένης και πρώτης Νοτιοκορεάτισσας αρχιμουσικού Shiyeon Sung, η Gyeonggi Philharmonic Orchestra (Φιλαρμονική Ορχήστρα της επαρχίας Γκιόνγκι) ερμηνεύει την Πέμπτη Συμφωνία του Γκούσταβ Μάλερ. Η συναυλία δόθηκε στο Κέντρο Τεχνών της Σεούλ, στις 9 Ιουνίου 2016.

Ο Γκούσταβ Μάλερ ολοκλήρωσε τη Συμφωνία αρ. 5 σε Ντο δίεση ελάσσονα το 1902, ενώ στη συνέχεια την αναθεώρησε δύο φορές, το 1904 και το 1911. Το έργο έχει αποκληθεί «το Έβερεστ της Μουσικής» και αποτελεί ένα μνημειώδες πένθιμο εμβατήριο. Ο Χέρμπερτ φον Κάραγιαν είχε πει: «Μια μεγάλη εκτέλεση της Πέμπτης είναι μια εμπειρία που σε μεταμορφώνει. Το εκπληκτικό φινάλε σχεδόν σε αναγκάζει να κρατήσεις την ανάσα σου».

Οι Συμφωνίες του Μάλερ αποτελούν μνημεία καλλιτεχνικής αρτιότητας που βρίθουν έντασης και μεγαλείου. Οι φιλοσοφικές αναζητήσεις και οι υπαρξιακές αγωνίες του συνθέτη, σε συνδυασμό με την ασυνήθιστη πυκνότητα των ενορχηστρώσεών του, είχαν ως αποτέλεσμα να κατηγορηθεί στην αρχή ως εκκεντρικός, αλλά σταδιακά τέτοιες απόψεις παραμερίστηκαν. Η Πέμπτη Συμφωνία του χαρακτηρίζεται από το πλήθος αντικρουόμενων συναισθημάτων που πραγματεύεται. Την τραγωδία διαδέχεται η χαρά, τον πόνο η απόλαυση και την απελπισία η ελπίδα. Αυτό οφείλεται στο ότι γράφτηκε σε δύο διαδοχικά καλοκαίρια που ο συνθέτης είχε εντελώς διαφορετική ψυχική διάθεση. Το καλοκαίρι του 1901 ανάρρωνε από σοβαρή αρρώστια στη νεόχτιστη βίλα του στη νότια Αυστρία, έχοντας φτάσει πολύ κοντά στο θάνατο. Το επόμενο καλοκαίρι συνέχισε τη σύνθεση στο ίδιο μέρος, όμως αυτή τη φορά παντρεμένος και περιμένοντας το πρώτο παιδί του.

Η φανφάρα που ξεκινάει τη Συμφωνία είναι στο ίδιο στυλ με την αρχική φανφάρα της Πέμπτης Συμφωνίας του Μπετόβεν. Ο θάνατος που καταδιώκει τον συνθέτη εμφανίζεται στο πένθιμο εμβατήριο που ακολουθεί και γεμίζει τον ακροατή με απελπισία. Ακολουθούν δύο μέρη όπου το σκοτάδι του θανάτου και το φως της ζωής αντιπαλεύουν. Το τέταρτο μέρος, Adagietto, με τις άρπες και τα έγχορδα, ακούγεται σαν μια όαση μέσα στο υπόλοιπο έργο. Το μέρος αυτό (αφιερωμένο από τον Μάλερ στη γυναίκα του, Άλμα Σίντλερ) έγινε ιδιαίτερα γνωστό όταν ο Λουκίνο Βισκόντι το χρησιμοποίησε στην κινηματογραφική μεταφορά του «Θανάτου στη Βενετία» του Τόμας Μαν. Στο τέλος, το φινάλε ακούγεται σαν μια κατάφαση στη ζωή και στη δύναμη του έρωτα.

Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)

♪ Symphony No.5 in C sharp minor (1901-1902, 1904, 1911)

Part I
i. Trauermarsch. In gemessenem Schritt. Streng. Wie ein Kondukt
ii. Stürmisch bewegt, mit größter Vehemenz
Part II
iii. Scherzo. Kräftig, nicht zu schnell
Part III
iv. Adagietto. Sehr langsam
v. Rondo – Finale. Allegro

Gyeonggi Philharmonic Orchestra
Conductor: Shiyeon Sung

Seoul Arts Center, June 9, 2016

(HD 1080p)

The South Korean conductor Shiyeon Sung is characterised by a natural authority, a collegial and inspiring rehearsal approach and the ability to tread the fine line between passion and level-headedness. With the Gyeonggi Philharmonic Orchestra, whose chief conductor she has been since January 2014, she toured Europe for the first time in summer 2015. Together, they appeared at the Philharmonie Berlin, in Wiesbaden, at the Musik Festival Saar and elsewhere. In September 2016, she will repay the favour, and conduct the German Radio Philharmonic Orchestra Saarbrücken Kaiserslautern on tour in her home country.

Other highlights of the new season include a return visit to the Konzerthaus Orchestra Berlin, her debut concerts with the National Taiwan Symphony Orchestra and the Deutsche Staatsphilharmonie Rheinland-Pfalz as well as a concert performance of Bizet's "Carmen", a "Shakespeare in Music" concert, and a Prokofiev portrait concert with the Gyeonggi Philharmonic Orchestra, with whom she recently performed and recorded Mahler's 5th Symphony. In July 2016, she made her successful debut with the Sydney Symphony Orchestra with works by Shostakovich, Tchaikovsky and Berlioz. In the previous season, she conducted the National Symphony Orchestra Washington at the Wolf Trap Festival.

When James Levine appointed her as his Assistant Conductor at the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 2007, she already had a reputation as one of the most exciting emerging talents on the international music circuit: shortly before, Shiyeon Sung had won the International Conductors' Competition Sir Georg Solti and the Gustav Mahler Conductors' Competition in Bamberg. During her three-year tenure in Boston, she began a close collaboration with the Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra and conducted their season opening concert in 2007. In 2009, the orchestra established an Associate Conductor's position especially for her, which she held until 2013.

The list of orchestras with whom Shiyeon Sung has worked since then is remarkable. This includes renowned European orchestras such as the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France, Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Stavanger Symphony Orchestra, Konzerthaus Orchestra Berlin and the Bamberg Symphony,as well as the Los Angeles Philharmonic, which she led in a spectacular debut concert with Martha Argerich at the Tongyeong International Music Festival. In June 2010, Shiyeon Sung conducted a highly successful concert after the re-opening of the legendary Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires. The Argentinian press enthusiastically praised the young conductor's "virtuoso ability". At the Stockholm Opera, she has conducted works including Christoph Willibald Gluck's "Orpheus und Eurydike".

Born in 1975 in Pusan, South Korea, Shiyeon Sung won various prizes as a pianist in youth competitions. From 2001 to 2006, she studied orchestral conducting with Rolf Reuter at the Hanns Eisler School of Music in Berlin and continued her education with advanced conducting studies with Jorma Panula at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm.

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